Types of Loads

It’s time to get acquainted with the types of loads we may encounter on our way.

Concentrated force:

Characteristics of concentrated force:
– it is expressed in newtons [N (kN, MN)],
– concentrated force at an angle, for example 60 °, should be broken down into components so that it can be easily included in the calculations.
I will show it on an example.

Strength focused on angle:


We distribute it to the Py vertical component and the Px horizontal component.
In the above example, when the force at an angle is directed downwards and to the left, we get the Py Force directed downwards and the Px force directed to the left, let’s see:

By distributing the P force with a value of 2 kN for components, we get:



Having the given angle as in the drawing above, we will always multiply the vertical component (Py) by the sine, and the horizontal component (Px) we multiply by the cosine! If the angle between the force and the vertical plane should be multiplied the other way round.


Rectangular force:

Characteristics of the distributed force:
– it is expressed in newtons per meter [N / m (kN / m, MN / m)]
– works along its entire length with the same value (in the figure 2kN / m)
– the center of gravity is in the middle of the strength
– the center of gravity of Q equals the force acting on 1 meter multiplied by the entire length on which it operates (the formula for the area of the rectangle):


Triangle force:

Characteristics of the triangular force:
– it is expressed in Newtons per meter [N / m, (kN / m, MN / m)],
– the value of the force at one end is maximum and at the other end equal to zero,
– the force value changes linearly,
– the center of gravity is located in 1/3 of the length from the maximum value (as in the figure),
– the value of the center of gravity force is calculated in the same way as the area of the triangle.

Bending moment:

Characteristics of the bending moment:
– is expressed in Newton meters [Nm (kNm, MNm)]

A separate course page will be created for the bending moment. >> Bending moment – guide <<

You just got to know the most commonly used types of loads, I suggest you look into a separate page with a bending moment, because it is a more extensive topic. However, if you have understood what and how loads work, you can go to the next course.